Women’s Political Representation in Georgia Since 1990s.
Keywords:politics, women's political participation, political parties, election system, democracy, gender quotas.
The article reviews and analyzes women’s participation in politics, more concretely in the national parliament of Georgia during transition period. Namely, it explores the period from 1990s till 2012. The article reveals challenges to women’s political participation, explores the factors that have shaped women’s low representation in formal politics including political, economic and cultural factors. The article states that although Georgia has undergone difficult transition era accompanied with social and economic upheavals, women’s political representation is a rather complex issue. Along with the challenges and processes related to the transition and democratic development, explanation for women’s low representation in politics should be sought in political parties and characteristics of formal politics. Observing that women’s representation in the national parliament of Georgia has not been significantly improved during this period, without adopting temporary special measures a few decades are necessary for increasing women’s participation in formal politics.
Bagratia, Tamar. 2013. Gender Analysis of 2012 Parliamentary Elections. Tbilisi: NIMD
Bagratia, Tamar and Medea Badashvili. 2011. „Development of Intraparty Democracy from Gender Perspective“. Intraparty Democracy and Local Governance, Tbilisi: NIMD:7-33
Brunnbauer, Ulf. 2000. „From Equality Without Democracy to Democracy Without Equality“. South East Europe Review, 3:151-168
Caul, Miki. 2010. Women’s Representation in Parliament: the Role of Political Parties. In Women, Gender and Politics: A Reader, ed. Krook, M. L. and Schilds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Chkheidze, Ketevan. 2010. „Gender Politics in Georgia“. Caucasus Analytical Digest. 21:2-5
Dahlerup, Drude. (2005). Increasing Women’s Political Representation: New Trend in Gender Quotas. In Women in parliament, beyond numbers, (revised edition).ed. Julie Ballington and Azza Karam. Stockholm: International IDEA
Heinen, J. 2006. Clashes and Ordeals of Women’s Citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe, In Women and Citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe, redaqtori Jasmina Lukic, Joanna Regulska and Darya Zavirsek, Ashgate Publishing
Ishkanian, A. 2003. „Gendered Transitions: The Impact of Post-Soviet Transition on Women in Central Asia and the Caucasus“. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 2(3):465-496
Khomeriki, Lela and S. Murusidze. 2002. Women’s Participation in Political Parties. Gender Problems in Georgia. Tbilisi: CIEI
Khomeriki, Lela and Nino Chubinidze. 1998. “Women in Political Parties of Georgia”. Directory of Political Parties. Tbilisi: International Center for Civic Culture.
Law of Georgia on Gender Equality. 2010.
Matland, Richard E. 1998. Women’s Representation in National Legislature: Developed and
Developing Countries. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 23(1), 109-125.
Matland, Richard E. and K.A. Montgomery. 2003. Women’s Access to Political Power in Post Communist Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Matland, Richard 2005. „Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems“. In Women in Parliament Beyond Numbers, A Revised Edition, რედაქტორი Julie Ballington and Azza Karam, Stockholm: International IDEA.
Norris, Pippa. 1997. „Choosing Electoral System, Majoritarian and Mixed Systems. „International Political Science Review, 18 (3), 297-312.
Parliament of Georgia. 2006. The State Concept on Gender Equality. Retrieved 5 September http://www.parliament.ge/files/gender/Conc.pdf
Parliament of Georgia. 2009. Organic Law on Political Unions of Citizens. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/europe/GE/organic-law-of-georgia-on-political-union-of/view.
Pataraia, Baia. 2015. Georgian Politics Without Women – Quotas as a Solution to the Problem, Policy Brief. Open Society Georgia Foundation. Retrieved March 22 from http://www.osgf.ge/files/2015/Publication/EU-Geirgia%20Association%20/Angarishi_A4_3.pdf.
Paxton, Pamela and Sheri Kunovich. 2003. Women’s Political Representation: the Importance of Ideology. Social Forces. 82 (1), 87-113.
Regulska, Joanna and Magda Grabowska. 2012. „Social Justice, Hegemony and Women’s Mobilization“. In Justice, Hegemony and Mobilization: Views from Central/Eastern Europe and Eurasia, ed. J. Kubik and A. T. Linch, NY:NYU Press.
Sabedashvili, Tamar. 2007. Gender and Democratization: the Case of Georgia 1991-2006. Tbilisi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.
Verdery, Katherine. 1996. What Was Socialism and What comes Next? NJ: Princeton University Press.
Walshe, Denise. 2011. Women’s Rights in Democratizing States, Just Debate and Gender Justice in the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Waylen, Georgina. 1994. Women and Democratization: Conceptualization Gender Relation in Transition Politics. World Politics 46 (3): 327-354.